Mar
30
8:00 pm20:00

Barnard Columbia Ancient Drama Group: Seneca’s “Troades” (Trojan Women)

Tickets available

The Barnard Columbia Ancient Drama Group is proud to present Seneca’s “Troades” (Trojan Women) – a resistance piece composed around the middle of the first century CE during the reign of Emperor Nero by his tutor.

Ten years wrought with bloodshed and agony of the Greek-Trojan conflict have ended. The surviving Greeks are ready to return to their homes, taking the Trojan people as their prizes and reducing the royalty to slaves. Despite the ashes of their city and compatriots scattering across the desolate plain of Ilium, the Trojan women stand together in their final moment of shared grief, rage, and strength.

“Troades” decries and protests colonial oppression. A testament to womanist thought in antiquity, the play denounces sexual slavery and the sorting of women. Trojan Women speaks to us today in surprising ways. It insists that we recognize how all humans, whether individually or collectively and often under social compulsion, perpetuate violence and cause others to suffer traumas both physical and emotional. The tragedy creates a false equivalence between the oppressor and the oppressed. In the context of a colonizing and colonized literary tradition, the play urges us to look inward also to address our own complex humanity. This spring’s production applies contemporary symbols and movement to Seneca’s protest in poetry.

Performances at the Minor Latham Playhouse, Barnard College:

– Thursday, March 30th: 8:00pm
– Friday, March 31st: 8:00pm
– Saturday, April 1st: 2:00pm matinee
– Saturday, April 1st: 8: 00pm evening

This production is in Latin with English supertitles.
Made possible by the Matthew Alan Kramer Fund.

Directed by Yujhán Claros with original choreography by Sarah Esser and music by Ediz Ozelkan.

Tickets are $10.00
Student tickets are $5.00 with ID.

Mar
31
8:00 pm20:00

Barnard Columbia Ancient Drama Group: Seneca’s “Troades” (Trojan Women)

Tickets available

The Barnard Columbia Ancient Drama Group is proud to present Seneca’s “Troades” (Trojan Women) – a resistance piece composed around the middle of the first century CE during the reign of Emperor Nero by his tutor.

Ten years wrought with bloodshed and agony of the Greek-Trojan conflict have ended. The surviving Greeks are ready to return to their homes, taking the Trojan people as their prizes and reducing the royalty to slaves. Despite the ashes of their city and compatriots scattering across the desolate plain of Ilium, the Trojan women stand together in their final moment of shared grief, rage, and strength.

“Troades” decries and protests colonial oppression. A testament to womanist thought in antiquity, the play denounces sexual slavery and the sorting of women. Trojan Women speaks to us today in surprising ways. It insists that we recognize how all humans, whether individually or collectively and often under social compulsion, perpetuate violence and cause others to suffer traumas both physical and emotional. The tragedy creates a false equivalence between the oppressor and the oppressed. In the context of a colonizing and colonized literary tradition, the play urges us to look inward also to address our own complex humanity. This spring’s production applies contemporary symbols and movement to Seneca’s protest in poetry.

Performances at the Minor Latham Playhouse, Barnard College:

– Thursday, March 30th: 8:00pm
– Friday, March 31st: 8:00pm
– Saturday, April 1st: 2:00pm matinee
– Saturday, April 1st: 8: 00pm evening

This production is in Latin with English supertitles.
Made possible by the Matthew Alan Kramer Fund.

Directed by Yujhán Claros with original choreography by Sarah Esser and music by Ediz Ozelkan.

Tickets are $10.00
Student tickets are $5.00 with ID.

Barnard Columbia Ancient Drama Group: Seneca’s “Troades” (Trojan Women)

Apr
1
2:00 pm14:00

Barnard Columbia Ancient Drama Group: Seneca’s “Troades” (Trojan Women)

Tickets available

The Barnard Columbia Ancient Drama Group is proud to present Seneca’s “Troades” (Trojan Women) – a resistance piece composed around the middle of the first century CE during the reign of Emperor Nero by his tutor.

Ten years wrought with bloodshed and agony of the Greek-Trojan conflict have ended. The surviving Greeks are ready to return to their homes, taking the Trojan people as their prizes and reducing the royalty to slaves. Despite the ashes of their city and compatriots scattering across the desolate plain of Ilium, the Trojan women stand together in their final moment of shared grief, rage, and strength.

“Troades” decries and protests colonial oppression. A testament to womanist thought in antiquity, the play denounces sexual slavery and the sorting of women. Trojan Women speaks to us today in surprising ways. It insists that we recognize how all humans, whether individually or collectively and often under social compulsion, perpetuate violence and cause others to suffer traumas both physical and emotional. The tragedy creates a false equivalence between the oppressor and the oppressed. In the context of a colonizing and colonized literary tradition, the play urges us to look inward also to address our own complex humanity. This spring’s production applies contemporary symbols and movement to Seneca’s protest in poetry.

Performances at the Minor Latham Playhouse, Barnard College:

– Thursday, March 30th: 8:00pm
– Friday, March 31st: 8:00pm
– Saturday, April 1st: 2:00pm matinee
– Saturday, April 1st: 8: 00pm evening

This production is in Latin with English supertitles.
Made possible by the Matthew Alan Kramer Fund.

Directed by Yujhán Claros with original choreography by Sarah Esser and music by Ediz Ozelkan.

Tickets are $10.00
Student tickets are $5.00 with ID.

 

Apr
1
8:00 pm20:00

Barnard Columbia Ancient Drama Group: Seneca’s “Troades” (Trojan Women)

Tickets available

The Barnard Columbia Ancient Drama Group is proud to present Seneca’s “Troades” (Trojan Women) – a resistance piece composed around the middle of the first century CE during the reign of Emperor Nero by his tutor.

Ten years wrought with bloodshed and agony of the Greek-Trojan conflict have ended. The surviving Greeks are ready to return to their homes, taking the Trojan people as their prizes and reducing the royalty to slaves. Despite the ashes of their city and compatriots scattering across the desolate plain of Ilium, the Trojan women stand together in their final moment of shared grief, rage, and strength.

“Troades” decries and protests colonial oppression. A testament to womanist thought in antiquity, the play denounces sexual slavery and the sorting of women. Trojan Women speaks to us today in surprising ways. It insists that we recognize how all humans, whether individually or collectively and often under social compulsion, perpetuate violence and cause others to suffer traumas both physical and emotional. The tragedy creates a false equivalence between the oppressor and the oppressed. In the context of a colonizing and colonized literary tradition, the play urges us to look inward also to address our own complex humanity. This spring’s production applies contemporary symbols and movement to Seneca’s protest in poetry.

Performances at the Minor Latham Playhouse, Barnard College:

– Thursday, March 30th: 8:00pm
– Friday, March 31st: 8:00pm
– Saturday, April 1st: 2:00pm matinee
– Saturday, April 1st: 8: 00pm evening

This production is in Latin with English supertitles.
Made possible by the Matthew Alan Kramer Fund.

Directed by Yujhán Claros with original choreography by Sarah Esser and music by Ediz Ozelkan.

Tickets are $10.00
Student tickets are $5.00 with ID.

Barnard Columbia Ancient Drama Group: Seneca’s “Troades” (Trojan Women)

Classics Colloquium: Craige Champion (Syracuse University)  "General and Priest: Scipio Africanus, the Salian Priesthood, and the Campaign against Antiochus the Great"
Apr
4
4:10 pm16:10

Classics Colloquium: Craige Champion (Syracuse University) "General and Priest: Scipio Africanus, the Salian Priesthood, and the Campaign against Antiochus the Great"

  • 603 Hamilton Hall

In this talk, Professor Champion will provide an overview of his new book titled, The Peace of the Gods: Elite Religious Practices in the Middle Roman Republic, to be published later in April by the Princeton University Press. He will then focus on a case study from the book: the religious and military demands on Scipio Africanus on campaign against Antiochus III, and what his behavior reveals about the question of Romans 'elites' "belief" in the gods during the Middle Republic.

Apr
25
4:30 pm16:30

To detect and conserve: new research on the science and history of Columbia's ancient manuscripts

  • Butler Library 523

What happens when researchers in carbon nanotechnology encounter some of the oldest documents in existence? In 2012, scientists, papyrologists and conservators joined forces to study writing materials thousands of years old, and the Ancient Ink Laboratory was born.  Based in the Columbia Nano Initiative, the team found an ideal source of study in the Columbia University Libraries' Papyri and Ostraca Collection, one of the largest holdings of ancient writings in the United States. This talk will describe the cross-disciplinary work of the Ancient Ink Lab and  explain some of its surprising discoveries, including research that may lead to new and non-destructive method for dating carbon inks from the ancient Mediterranean world.
 


Columbia's Archaeological Campaign at Hadrian's Villa (APAHA Tibur 2016)
Mar
23
5:30 pm17:30

Columbia's Archaeological Campaign at Hadrian's Villa (APAHA Tibur 2016)

  • 2nd floor Teatro, Italian Academy, Columbia University

Professors Francesco de Angelis (Columbia) and Marco Maiuro (Rome La Sapienza and Columbia), directors of the Advanced Program of Ancient History and Art (APAHA) will present the main results of the excavation at Hadrian’s Villa, discuss the historical significance of the findings, and announce some exciting developments of the project for 2017.

With over 80 participants from 15 universities and institutions across 8 countries, the 2016 fieldwork season was the most intensive and the most productive one since the inception of the program. The excavation of the “Lararium” courtyard revealed a pre-Hadrianic channel running under the precinct’s floor and provided further data on the Medieval phases of the complex. Continued exploration of the building in the area of the "Macchiozzo" brought to light new rooms with mosaics and painted walls and ceilings. The expansion of the excavation around the "Macchiozzo" building uncovered architectural remains that were last seen (and only partially documented) by Piranesi in the 18th century.

This presentation will take place in the Teatro (2nd floor) of the Italian Academy, Columbia University. A reception will follow. All welcome! Please click here to register for the event.

 

Classics Colloquium: Lauren Ginsberg (Cincinnati) "Venturi Me Teque Legent: Caesar’s Epic Successor"
Mar
21
4:10 pm16:10

Classics Colloquium: Lauren Ginsberg (Cincinnati) "Venturi Me Teque Legent: Caesar’s Epic Successor"

  • 603 Hamilton Hall

This talk looks at the literary and historical relationship between Lucan and Caesar, a relationship which is still denied by a surprising bulk of scholarship but which has also recently been attracting increased attention - often buried in footnotes or offhanded comments - due to the intertextual turn in historiographical studies. Through an analysis of the episode of Ilerda in both Caesar and Lucan, I argue that far from wishing to ignore or even erase the memory of Caesar’s Commentarii de Bello Civili, Lucan not only presupposes a reader intimately familiar with his predecessor’s account but also marks Caesar’s text as a significant site of memory for the civil wars. The paper’s case study approach Lucan’s engagement with Caesar with a two-fold goal: (1) to reframe the way we approach the question by looking at Caesar’s Commentarii not as source but as model and (2) to free such analysis of the assumption that Lucan’s reception of Caesar must aim purely at denigrating the character of Caesar.

Classics Colloquium: Ruth Webb (University Lille 3) "Objects and Actions: The bed of Odysseus as ekphrasis"
Feb
28
4:10 pm16:10

Classics Colloquium: Ruth Webb (University Lille 3) "Objects and Actions: The bed of Odysseus as ekphrasis"

  • 603 Hamilton Hall

Odysseus’ account of the making of his bed in Odyssey 23 is the culminating moment of his reintegration, leading as it does to his acceptance by Penelope after her final test of the stranger’s identity. I will examine this much discussed passage as an example of a particular type of ekphrasis, that of the way (tropos) in which something is done or made, a category which encourages us to place as much emphasis on the actions of the maker as on the resulting object. Doing so, and consequently taking account of the embodied knowledge that such ekphraseis encode, can provide extra insight into the passage and into the reasons why the account of the bed serves as such an effective proof of Odysseus’ identity.

Feb
24
5:00 pm17:00

Heyman Center: Stephen Chrisomalis (Wayne State University) "Renewing a Dynamic Cognitive Philology of Numerals"

  • Heyman Center Common Room

In his 1935 book The psycho-biology of language, the linguist George Kingsley Zipf introduced the concept of dynamic philology, which he hoped would integrate the formal and quantifiable aspects of the psychological sciences with the philologist's concern with the social and cultural contexts of speakers, writers, and their linguistic productions. Yet Zipf's modern impact has largely been in large-scale statistical analyses of word frequencies in corpus linguistics and psycholinguistics, while many humanists are rightly skeptical of anything calling itself philology that is divorced from social context. The present paper uses material from the study of numeral systems - a core subject of traditional philology - to propose a different configuration of "dynamic philology". 

http://heymancenter.org/events/stephen-crisomalis/

Classics Colloquium: Courtney Roby (Cornell) "Modeling embodied experience in the Peripatetic Mechanica"
Feb
20
6:10 pm18:10

Classics Colloquium: Courtney Roby (Cornell) "Modeling embodied experience in the Peripatetic Mechanica"

  • 503 Hamilton Hall

The Peripatetic text typically called Mechanica or Mechanical Problems was long attributed to Aristotle, though confidence in his authorship later dwindled and it is usually now more cautiously attributed to a later member of the Peripatetic school. The Mechanica is framed for the most part as a series of questions about mechanical principles and devices, ranging from the fundamental and abstract (as when the author asks why the lever allows small forces to move large weights) to the particular and applied (as when he asks why beds are typically built with a certain form factor). These are answered with reference to geometrical analogues, diagrams, real-world observables and thought-experiments, often composites of results about simpler systems explored elsewhere in the work.

Because so many of the scenarios described in the Mechanica are located in a “real world” context of lived experience rather than an abstract world of idealized objects, the author is often compelled to confront the gulf between experience and ideal. Rather than reducing mechanical systems down to parameters that can be reproducibly measured only on exquisitely specialized laboratory equipment, the author asks questions prompted by everyday observations about the world he and his notional reader actually live in. This world is populated by sailors, laborers, and merchants; it is filled with a host of interesting objects ranging from ships at sea to the frame of the human body. These objects are radically more complex than the classical mechanician’s pendulum just by virtue of existing in a mundane context rather than a laboratory, so that the author must develop a whole range of strategies for representing them in the text and explaining their behavior. 

The explanatory models used in the Mechanica are framed as narratives that enable the reader to participate in mental-model construction in several different ways. The use of lettered diagrams throughout enables a conceptual shift into geometry’s domain of rigorous proofs even on complex systems. Many of the text’s acts of mental modeling are guided by deliberately including vivid real-world details alongside their geometrical “skeletons,” even invoking the tacit knowledge of embodied experience. Problems in this vein ask the reader to imagine quotidian activities like standing up from a sitting position as well as (mercifully) less common experiences like having a tooth yanked out with a forceps. Bodily scenarios like this offer the reader a kinesthetically vivid understanding of leverage, invoking his intuitive, experientially-derived memory of the power a given force can exert. The combination of abstraction and universality on the one hand, and the vivid memory of lived bodily experience on the other, make these passages compelling thought-experiments. The author balances the complexity of embodied experience with a model of the body reduced down to the elements most essential for understanding the rich variety of phenomena he investigates.

Columbia University Ancient World Graduate Student Conference
Nov
11
Nov 12

Columbia University Ancient World Graduate Student Conference

  • Columbia University

Refuge and Refugees in the Ancient World

a two-day conference exploring the issues of refuge and refugees in the ancient world, organized by a committee of CAM-affiliated graduate students and co-sponsored by CAM. For more details, please visit the conference's webpage

Classics Colloquium: Anna Conser (Columbia)
May
3
4:10 pm16:10

Classics Colloquium: Anna Conser (Columbia)

  • Columbia University

CLASSICS COLLOQUIUM

Greek choral music of the 5th century is generally arranged in paired stanzas with a repeated metrical pattern, but there is scanty evidence for whether music and dance were likewise repeated between stanzas. In this paper, I examine the choral odes of Sophocles' Trachiniae in light of ancient sources on music and dance. I suggest that the text itself provides significant evidence of larger strophic responsion, both in the patterning of (choreographic?) images, and in the precise correspondence of pitch accents in key passages. My talk will be illustrated with video clips from the production of Trachiniae I recently directed at Barnard/Columbia.

May
2
5:00 pm17:00

Columbia University Ancient World Graduate Student Conference: Abstract Deadline

Refuge and Refugees in the Ancient World

November 11-12, 2016. Columbia University in the City of New York

Abstracts are due by May 2, 2016. Please email cuconference2016@gmail.com

We invite papers from graduate students working across disciplines related to the ancient world for a two-day conference which will explore the issues of refuge and refugees. From representations of refugees and the notions of “refuge” to their physical traces in the archaeological record, we hope to discuss how ancient societies experienced and conceptualized the flight and plight of displaced peoples.

In light of the recent upsurge in work on ancient Mediterranean migration and exile, as well as current events, new questions arise: What heuristic value does the term “refugee” have for our understanding of the ancient equivalent? How do we define refuge and refugees? Where do we look for the voices of refugees among the ancient evidence? What and where are the sites of “refuge” attested across the ancient Mediterranean world?

We welcome papers in any disciplinary field––and interdisciplinary approaches are encouraged––pertaining to the ancient Mediterranean world and surrounding regions, including Egypt, the Near East and the expanses of the Roman Empire, and falling within the period spanning from the Bronze Age to Late Antiquity.

Symposium: Philosophy in Cicero's Letters
Apr
30
9:00 am09:00

Symposium: Philosophy in Cicero's Letters

  • Columbia University

Philosophy in Cicero's Letters

 A Symposium at Columbia University

Saturday, April 30th, 2016

1512 International Affairs Building

10:30-10:40                 Welcome

 

First Paper Session (Chair: Gareth Williams)

 

10:40-11:40                 Margaret Graver, "The Dregs of Romulus"

                                    Respondent: Brad Inwood

 

11:40-12                      Break

 

12-1                             Raphael Woolf, "Philosophy and Death in Cicero's Letters to Atticus"

                                    Respondent: Wolfgang-Rainer Mann

 

Second Paper Session (Chair: Dan-el Padilla Peralta)

 

2:30-3:30                     Katharina Volk, "Pompeian Group Therapy in Cicero's Letters (47-                                                            45 BCE)"

                                    Respondent: Yelena Baraz

 

3:30-3:50                     Break

 

3:50-4:50                     Nathan Gilbert, "Cicero the Philosopher at Work: The Genesis and                                                             Execution of De Officiis III"

                                    Respondent: James Zetzel

 

4:50-5:15                     Final discussion

 

5:15                             Reception

 

 

 

 

Co-sponsored by the Department of Classics and the Society of Fellows in the Humanities

Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BCE)—ill-fated statesman during the collapse of the Roman Republic, Latin orator extraordinaire, and the author of a wide-ranging and influential corpus of philosophical writings—is unique among premodern individuals in that we possess large parts of his correspondence and are thus unusually well informed about both the minutiae of his life and the developments of his thought.  In recent years and months, scholarly interest has increasingly turned to the philosophical aspects of this correspondence, which contains everything from passing references to philosophical jokes, serious disquisitions, and the author's attempts to apply philosophical precepts to his own and his correspondents' lives. 

The one-day symposium, "Philosophy in Cicero's Letters" aims to capture this moment in the fast-developing scholarship on Cicero, ancient philosophy, and intellectual history. 

University Seminars: Shane Butler (Johns Hopkins)
Apr
28
7:30 pm19:30

University Seminars: Shane Butler (Johns Hopkins)

  • Columbia University

University Seminars in Classical Civilizations

Shane Butler (Johns Hopkins)

"Music of the Storm"

Faculty House (please check signs in lobby for precise location)

 

Prof. Butler kindly shared an abstract of his upcoming talk with us: "With examples from Vergil to Whitman, and thoughts on psychoanalysis, post-humanism, and 'geophony,' this paper reconsiders what it means to listen to literature."

Apr
27
6:00 pm18:00

Book launch for Marcus Folch's “The City and the Stage”

You are invited to the book launch cocktail party for Professor Marcus Folch's new book, “The City and the Stage” published by Oxford Univeristy Press.  
The party will be held on Wednesday April 27th, 2016 from 6:00 to 8:00 PM at the Faculty House Ivy Lounge & Coffee Bar, 64 Morningside Drive

 

The City and the Stage

Performance, Genre, and Gender in Plato's Laws

Marcus Folch

Description

What role did poetry, music, song, and dance play in the social and political life of the ancient Greek city? How did philosophy respond to, position itself against, and articulate its own ambitions in relation to the poetic tradition? How did ancient philosophers theorize and envision alternatives to fourth-century Athenian democracy? The City and the Stage poses such questions in a study of the Laws, Plato's last, longest, and unfinished philosophical dialogue. Reading the Laws in its literary, historical, and philosophical contexts, this book offers a new interpretation of Plato's final dialogue with the Greek poetic tradition and an exploration of the dialectic between philosophy and mimetic art. Although Plato is often thought hostile to poetry and famously banishes mimetic art from the ideal city of the Republic, The City and the Stage shows that in his final work Plato made a striking about-face, proposing to rehabilitate Athenian performance culture and envisaging a city, Magnesia, in which poetry, music, song, and dance are instrumental in the cultivation of philosophical virtues. Plato's views of the performative properties of music, dance, and poetic language, and the psychological underpinnings of aesthetic experience receive systematic treatment in this book for the first time. The social role of literary criticism, the power of genres to influence a society and lead to specific kinds of constitutions, performance as a mechanism of gender construction, and the position of women in ancient Greek performance culture are central themes throughout this study. A wide-ranging examination of ancient Greek philosophy and fourth-century intellectual culture, The City and the Stage will be of significance to anyone interested in ancient Greek literature, performance, and Platonic philosophy in its historical contexts.

Classics Colloquium: Caroline Stark (Howard)
Apr
19
4:10 pm16:10

Classics Colloquium: Caroline Stark (Howard)

  • Columbia University

CLASSICS COLLOQUIUM

This talk examines the question why narratives of virgin sacrifice feature prominently in didactic hexameter poems about the nature of the universe, specifically Lucretius' De rerum natura, Manilius' Astronomica, and Lorenzo Bonincontri's De rebus naturalibus et divinis II.  I will argue that the tragic and vivid accounts of the sacrifice of these maidens and the triumph of their respective heroes are programmatic and represent the symbolic ritual re-enactment of the successful expurgation of society's evils according to the principles outlined in the poems.

Apr
9
2:30 pm14:30

New York Classical Club Oral Reading Contest

  • Columbia University

New York Classical Club Contests 2016

Oral Reading of Greek and Latin 

Saturday, 9 April 2016, 2:30pm

602 Hamilton Hall, Columbia University

ALL ARE WELCOME TO ATTEND





The New York Classical Club is pleased to announce two prize contests:

I. Prizes for the Oral Reading of Greek: 1st: $300; 2nd: $200; 3rd: $100.

II. Prizes for the Oral Reading of Latin: 1st: $300; 2nd: $200; 3rd: $100.


Purpose

To encourage students to acquire both facility and enjoyment in the oral performance of works of Greek and Latin literature, all of which were originally created with the intention of their being performed orally and not read silently.

Eligibility

Any student of Greek or Latin (elementary, secondary school, undergraduate, or graduate level).  Contestants may compete for both the Greek and Latin prizes, or for either one.

Format of the Contests 

1. One set passage for all contestants:

            a) Greek: Iliad, Book 3, lines 95-110

            b) Latin: Aeneid, Book 4, lines 265-78

2. One passage of ancient Greek/Latin literature chosen by the individual contestant (poetry or prose, ca. 15 lines).  Contestants are required to supply three photocopies of this passage for the judges.

Judges of the Contest

Prof. Katharina Volk (Columbia University; Director of the NYCC Oral Reading Contests)

Prof. Sulochana Asirvatham (Montclair State University)

Prof. Joshua Katz (Princeton University)

 Criteria for Judgment

1. Contestants will be judged on the consistency of pronunciation, metrical and rhythmic clarity, and literary expressiveness.

2. Memorization of the performed texts is optional and will not be a criterion in the evaluation of the contestants.

(The judges reserve the right not to award one or more of the above prizes.)

Entries

Students who wish to enter the contest must e-mail Prof. Katharina Volk at kv2018@columbia.edu by April 2nd.

University Seminars: Deborah Steiner (Columbia)
Mar
24
7:30 pm19:30

University Seminars: Deborah Steiner (Columbia)

  • Columbia University

University Seminars in Classical Civilizations

"The central issue addressed in this paper concerns the enduring link between choreia – song-dance in Plato’s definition – and the transformation of hearers into seers that occurs when a speaker or writer (in the endlessly repeated formula found in the Progymnasmata and other post-classical authors describing the role of enargeia in ekphrases) places things ‘before the eyes’ of an audience. In close readings of a series of passages from the early choral repertoire, two late archaic inscriptions, and two pots from the same period, I argue that the song-dance performances evoked in these accounts already replace hearing with autopsy and grant their hearer-viewers a synaesthetic, experiential encounter with events remote in time, space and ontology; as I further propose, they also engage in the conjuring up of the phantasiai so integral to later theoretical accounts of enargeia."